Government of the Order of the Temple of Solomon Constitutional Parliament as a Sovereign Non-Territorial Principality

Reality & Legitimacy of Templar Government

Official heraldic coat of arms of the Government of the Templar Order as a non-territorial Principality and sovereign subject of international law

Official heraldic coat of arms of the Government of the Templar Order as a non-territorial Principality and sovereign subject of international law

T (100) Knights Templar Illuminated Letters www.knightstemplarorder.org

The 12th century Sovereign Magistral Order of the Temple of Solomon, since its inception, has always possessed independent sovereignty with inherent governmental capacity:

The original Order of the Temple of Solomon was initially granted Royal patronage with autonomous sovereignty by King Baldwin II in 1118 AD [1] [2] [3] [4], including rights “in perpetuity” [5], such that “the Templars were not directly responsible to any secular monarch” [6], nor to any Church [7]. This founding grant was reconfirmed at the Council of Nablus in 1120 AD [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]. It was additionally granted autonomous sovereignty by ratification of its Charter as a Vatican Papal Decree in 1129 AD [14].

The Templar Order was directly and officially granted permanent and irrevocable sovereignty with full independence by a Vatican Papal Bull in 1139 AD [15], reconfirmed by supporting Papal Bulls in 1144 AD [16] and 1145 AD [17]. Official Vatican records confirm that the Templar Order did in fact possess and exercise its independent non-territorial sovereignty of statehood, quietly and privately, only in its relations with other historical institutions [18] [19].

The Sovereign Magistral Order of the Temple of Solomon was restored to its full legal legitimacy of sovereignty by historical rules of continuity and succession [20], officially reestablishing its original Grand Mastery by proven legal and canonical precedent [21] [22] in 2013 AD, by rules which remain in full force as customary international law [23] [24] [25] [26] which are binding upon all countries [27].

As a non-territorial sovereign Principality of independent statehood, the modern Templar Order legally holds the status of a “sovereign subject of international law” [28] [29] based upon its authentic substance [30]. As the state representing the “nationality” of cultural Templarism in world affairs, it is sometimes also properly referred to as a “nation-state”.

As a result of these (and many more) proven legal facts, the Order of the Temple of Solomon lawfully has a legitimate constitutional and parliamentary Government, possessing official capacity to exercise all functions of statehood and diplomacy in international relations.

 

Character of the Templar Government

 

The Government of the Templar Order, traditionally called the Parliament, consists of the Grand Officers of the chivalric aspect of the Order, supported by the Ministers of the governmental aspect of the Order, presided over by the Prince Grand Master as Head of State.

Historically, the Grand Mastery and Government of the Order have always worked together as an egalitarian meritocracy, with all officials coming to the table as equals. It was precisely this tradition which was famously described as the “Knights of the Round Table” of medieval Arthurian legends, which were written and popularized by the Knights Templar themselves [31] [32]. Accordingly, the authentic Templar Order de-emphasizes individual personalities, and does not support the dominating influence of any particular individuals, strictly following the historical Templar motto “Non nobis Domine, sed nomini Tuo da gloriam”: “Not to us, Lord, by to Thy name give the glory” [33].

Upholding these core principles, the Government of the Templar Principality does not “rule” nor impose “governance” over its members or participating organizations. Rather, it serves to represent its membership, representing the national identity of cultural Templarism, while guiding the historical institution by its original doctrines as proven by the historical record. (Indeed, this must be the necessary function of any true “government” – to listen to and faithfully represent the rights and interests of its people, while guiding its public policy by time-tested humanitarian principles and fairness of the Rule of Law.)

All members and participating organizations simply agree to abide by the Acts & Laws established by the Templar Government, as a contractual condition of interacting with and benefitting from this venerable historical institution.

(Note:  Some Ministers of Parliament and Grand Officers may separately hold additional royal, nobiliary or ecclesiastical titles, which may be of higher status than the present secular titles and forms of address used in the Templar Government, and thus may use such titles privately as they deem appropriate.)

 

Sovereign Head of State

 

The Head of State of the Order as a sovereign subject of international law is the Prince Grand Master of the Order as a historical institution. As Sovereign Head of State, the Grand Master holds the inherent sovereign, chivalric and ecclesiastical Fons Honourum which is vested in the Order itself in its own right [34] [35] [36].

 

Grand Master & Head of State

Prince Judge Matthew of Thebes, Ph.D., J.S.D., J.C.D.

prince-matthew-in-library-500-portraitHis Most Eminent Highness (M.E.H.) Prince Judge Matthew has over 22 years of experience in international law and security, including 15 years in geopolitical security, over 5 years of Judiciary experience, and over 5 years as a professional historian.

He holds a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in Foreign Languages (1993) from Union College (terms abroad at University of Rennes France), relevant to translating medieval documents and ancient scrolls.  He holds a Master of Science (M.S.) in Electrical Engineering (1996) from the Pontifical Academy of Sacred Sciences (externship at Moscow State Technical University), as a systems analyst, for integrating complex systems.

He is an adjunct Professor of Law holding a Juris Doctor (J.D.) in International Law (1997) from Dickinson School of Law, Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in International Affairs (2001) from the Crown Institute of Geopolitics and Diplomacy (externship at Russian Academy of Natural Sciences), and “Professorship” Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D.) (2008) from the Crown Institute of Law and Justice (externship at Tver State University Russia).

He was vetted, certified and appointed as a government accredited International Judge for UN level Courts of Justice (2013) specializing in human rights, working on-call as a Presiding Judge, and part-time in Judiciary Administration.

He is an adjunct Professor of Ancient and Medieval History holding a Doctorate (Ph.D.) in Archaeology and Egyptology (2012) from the Pontifical Academy of History and Culture (externship at Cairo University), and Juris Canonici Doctor (J.C.D.) in Canon Law (2016) from the Crown Institute of Law and Justice (externship at Vatican-Anglican Franciscan Brotherhood).  As an authoritative academic, he is a leading historian and archaeologist for various Royal Houses and United Nations NGO and IGO institutions, and a Mission Director of Archaeology for cooperating universities.

Prince Judge Matthew began his career as co-founding Chief of Operations for the Strategic Service for International Security (1994-2009), a private security firm based in Washington DC and London, with supporting offices in New York and Moscow.  The firm specialized in legal security and protection of critical infrastructure for governmental clients, and providing government caliber resources to private sector industries.  Experience included providing expert strategic analysis reports, training for national law enforcement agencies, and support for the Judiciary and prosecutors in organized crime and corruption cases.

He shifted his career to become Chief Legal Counsel of the Historical Preservation Society (HPS) based in London (2008-2012), applying his international law skills to facilitate the restoration of historical institutions, as a vehicle for projects supporting human rights.

He is officially a Prince under Canon law as customary international law, as the elected and installed Grand Master of the restored Order of the Temple of Solomon (2013), the historical institution of the Knights Templar.  The Order was granted independent sovereignty of statehood as a Principality, on the basis of its own ecclesiastical authority of the Ancient Priesthood of Solomon, by the Vatican Papal Bull “Omne Datum Optimum” of 1139 AD.

By chivalric, nobiliary and heraldic law under Canon law, all as customary international law, Prince Matthew is officially the 24th Grand Master of the Templar Order, succeeding Jacques de Molay after 700 years of abeyance, thereby becoming the first official Grand Master of the original and fully restored 12th century Knights Templar in the modern era.

As the Templar Prince Grand Master, he also serves as Coadjutor Pontiff (Coadiutoris Pontifex) of the restored 12th century Ancient Catholic Church preserved by the Templar Order, representing the original 1st century denomination of Ancient Catholicism.

For detailed facts supported by evidence of the legitimacy and good standing of Prince Matthew, proving any attempted defamation to be knowingly false and illegal, see the topic: “Verified Integrity of the Prince Grand Master

 

Grand Mastery

 

The traditional Grand Mastery, consisting of the Grand Officers of the Order, serves as the primary constitutional government round table, guiding the centennial policies of the Order as a historical chivalric institution.

All Grand Officers also hold the legal status of Ambassadors at Large in diplomatic relations for the Sovereign Order, and thus may alternately use the higher prenominal style of address “His (Her) Excellency” (H.E.), as they deem appropriate in furtherance of their official functions.

The following is only a partial list of the Grand Officers who currently have the most visible public functions:

 

Grand Justiciar – Count Judge Mario Farquharson, LL.B., Ph.D.

Count Judge Mario, Grand Justiciar

Right Honourable (Rt.Hon.) Count Mario Farquharson is an international lawyer, human rights advocate, philanthropist, and judiciary official, who has dedicated his career and life work to advancing humanitarian missions through timeless historical institutions.

He holds an LL.B. law degree (2006) in International Law (with Honours), a Master of Science (M.S.) in Education (2011), and a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in International Law (2014). He also serves as an investigating Instruction Judge and enforcement Compliance Judge for a UN-level Court of international Justice (since 2014).

He is a lifetime member of Inner Temple of the elite Inns of Court of the UK Justice system.  He is also a Fellow of the prestigious Royal Society for Arts (RSA), and an appointed Council Member and Fellow of the World Certification Institute (WCI) professional and educational accreditation agency.

He is on the Legal Services Steering Group of Skills for Justice (since 2011), the licensed official issuing authority for apprenticeship placements for the Judiciary and legal profession in the UK.  He is Vice Chairman of the National Association of Licensed Paralegals (since 2012), the only certification authority for the paralegal profession recognized by the regulatory agency of qualifications for England and Wales.

He is Regional President for the UK (since 2016) of the European Economic Chamber of Global Commerce and Industry (“EEIGCham”), a registered European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG) as an official lobbying group to the European Union (EU).

His career features combined overlapping education and experience of more than 14 years of non-profit philanthropy and humanitarian charity work, 12 years of international law specializing in human rights, and 8 years of electrical engineering providing a highly effective systemic-analytical approach to legal practice, supplemented by 8 years of banking and finance.

Count Mario Farquharson earned and was awarded official legalized European nobility peerage as a Count, under juridical Fons Honourum authority of the Order of the Temple of Solomon. He was elected and installed as Grand Justiciar for the Order as a sovereign subject of international law, thus serving as a Member of Parliament (M.P.) in the upper house of government.

 

Grand Commander – Viscount Michael Henry Dunn, Ph.D.

Viscount Michael, Grand CommanderRight Honourable (Rt.Hon.) Viscount Michael Henry Dunn trained at The Julliard School of theater arts (1980), and holds a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in Communications and Psychology (1989), Master of Arts (M.A.) in Psychology of Religious Studies (1993), and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Comparative Religion (2003). He is a human rights advocate, scholar, and author. As a recognized authority on Renaissance literature, he has lectured extensively throughout the U.S. and Europe.

He is an Adjunct Professor of History and Comparative Religion.  He also develops research in geopolitics and civil rights, in cooperation with NGO institutions of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and BRICS alliance of independent countries promoting international law and human rights.

As a leader in the Interfaith Movement, he participated in several major events of the Global Peace Initiative of Women, including the Conference on the Divine Feminine at Assisi in Italy, the founding meeting of the American Contemplative Alliance in Maryland, and a gathering of global interfaith leaders during the United Nations Conference in Copenhagen in 2009.

He was initiated into the Kriya Yoga path of Paramahansa Yogananda by the Self Realization Fellowship (SRF) in 1990, serving for 22 years contributing to the spiritual community of the Fellowship, leading meditation and chanting practices.

He is a classically trained actor with a 15 year career in arts and theater. As a musician and composer, he has recorded two highly acclaimed albums of devotional chanting in the Kirtan Yoga tradition of India, and was invited by The Episcopal Cathedral of Los Angeles as an official participant in the historic Hindu-Anglican Reconciliation Mass in 2007.

Viscount Michael Henry Dunn earned and was awarded official legalized European nobility peerage as a Viscount, under juridical Fons Honourum authority of the Order of the Temple of Solomon. He was elected and installed as Grand Commander for the Order as a sovereign subject of international law, thus serving as a Member of Parliament (M.P.) in the upper house of government, as Chairman of the Grand Mastery.

 

Grand Almoner – Baroness Gabriele Michaelis

Right Honourable (Rt.Hon.) Baroness Gabriele Michaelis, fondly called “Lady Gabriella” by her team partners and clients worldwide, brings over 33 years experience in animal and humanitarian welfare, clinical care, mental and medical therapy, practically applied through over 13 years of expert experience in project management, financing and institutional development.

She began her career with a four-year professional apprenticeship in Animal Care (1971), and completed specialized four-year undergraduate studies in Animal Therapy at an academic research and development institute (1975).  She holds a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in Education with major in Guidance Counseling, and professional certification as an Educational Specialist (Ed.S.), from the Institute of Practical Teacher Education in Germany (1978).

She became a licensed Mental Health Counselor and national Board Certified Teacher for schools, orphanages and retirement homes, specializing in Art Therapy, and a government Certified Clinical Advisor for medical rehabilitation therapy techniques (1990).  As a state exam certified Rehabilitation Professional, she was awarded a contract with the Ministry of Health in Egypt (2000), for establishing its first medical rehabilitation center for the military, which served as the model for many other centers.

Her career shifted to humanitarian development projects, with three years of experience as Humanitarian Projects Advisor for a venture capital firm of a United Kingdom investment bank (2001-2003).

She is the founding Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the “Team Invest-Group Michaelis” consortium based in Germany (since 2003), a multinational project development and management firm, providing mentorship and training for entrepreneurship.  Invest-Group specializes in institutional finance and philanthropy, supporting humanitarian projects including crisis intervention, through its international network of cooperating government agencies, universities, foundations and corporations.  It has permanent partnerships throughout Western Europe, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Latin America and North America.

Strategies focus on “win-win” mutually beneficial partnerships, with an emphasis on improving quality of life and raising living standards for the peoples of related host countries, while upholding and promoting ethics and traditional values.  Operations concentrate on matching and placing synergistic partnerships for innovative projects, to best utilize resources, optimize potentials, and maximize humanitarian impact.  Support services feature integrated holistic solutions implementing visionary strategies enhanced by knowledge and technology sharing, advancing long-term sustainable objectives.  Agency services include trustee and proxy signatory representation as a bridge for project facilitation.

She is a life-long proponent of Gnostic spirituality, dedicated to non-denominational and interfaith spirituality of sacred wisdom as exemplified through nature and all of God’s creatures.

Baroness Gabriele Michaelis earned and was awarded official legalized European nobility peerage as a Baroness, under juridical Fons Honourum authority of the Order of the Temple of Solomon.  She was elected and installed as Grand Almoner for the Order (2016) as a sovereign subject of international law, thus serving as a Member of Parliament (M.P.) in the upper house of government.

 

Grand Seneschal – Sir Immanuel Otto, K.T.S., M.A.

Sir Immanuel, Grand Seneschal

Right Honourable (Rt.Hon.) Sir Immanuel Otto holds a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in Classical Arts Media (2000), and Master of Arts (M.A.) in Sacred Performance Arts (2005). He holds multiple certifications in computer database systems and digital media, as applied to group collaboration projects for social movements, and digital studio arts, video and music production.

He has over 22 years of classical training and professional experience in performing arts, music and visual arts, which manifests as “Hollywood” quality visual presentations, soundtrack and film productions for non-profit social movements of sacred activism.

He has over 18 years of professional experience in institutional branding of socio-cultural movements, with related supporting social network development and online promotion systems. This includes 4 years of specialization in book and film publishing, marketing and distribution, including for a successful series of best-selling books and several independent films.

Immanuel has over 16 years of experience as a Social Programs Producer for various cultural institutions, developing membership communities and interactive platforms to mobilize social resources for non-profit missions, providing supporting online infrastructure to coordinate community efforts. This included 7 years as a key leadership team member of the Joseph Campbell Foundation, involving digital archives projects for cultural and academic preservation.

Sir Immanuel Otto earned and was awarded official legalized European nobility peerage as a Knight, under juridical Fons Honourum authority of the Order of the Temple of Solomon.  He was elected and installed as Grand Seneschal for the Order as a sovereign subject of international law, thus serving as a Member of Parliament (M.P.) in the upper house of government.

 

Grand Marshall – Baroness Robyn Davis

Baroness Robyn Davis, M.P.

Right Honourable (Rt.Hon.) Baroness Robyn Davis brings 25 years of creative, branding and leadership experience with interactive electronic media for online community development of social and humanitarian movements.  She is a pioneering social media strategist, innovator and developer, having experience working with some of America’s major industry leaders in information technology, and helped design some of the first prototype interactive blogs and forums in the early days of the internet era.  She is the inventor and developer of the “P-Volt” (meaning “people power”) platform for subscription-based membership, content sharing and cross-community participation for non-profit and humanitarian organizations sharing an affinity for promoting positive values.

She provides humanized solutions, as an entrepreneurial agent for change, integrating social media networking with creative personal appeal to produce next-generation results.  In this role, she serves as an inspirational and motivational team manager, stimulating and promoting the development of the organizations which she supports.

As a professional photographer and digital media artist, her work has always been centered around humans and the spirit of humanity, inspiring and upholding the best aspects of human behaviour and community relationships.  The character of her work focuses on helping people to feel a connection and emotional response which drives positive action, uplifting people to grow, evolve, prosper and thrive, finding joy and laughter along the way.

Emphasizing this life philosophy of complete humility of the natural human condition, regardless of all status and titles, she brands herself as “Robyn Davis: Being”.  Honouring her spirited individuality and energizing sense of humor, the Templar Order authorizes her use of the alternate personal title “Grand Dame Poo-Bah”.

She is also a human rights advocate, and founder of the grass-roots non-profit “Justice 4 Humanity” campaign, supporting an innovative “next-generation” licensed human rights Court of the independent Judiciary, with universal jurisdiction internationally.

Baroness Robyn Davis earned and was awarded official legalized European nobility peerage as a Baroness, under juridical Fons Honourum authority of the Order of the Temple of Solomon.  She was elected and installed as Grand Marshall for the Order as a sovereign subject of international law, thus serving as a Member of Parliament (M.P.) in the upper house of government.

 

Grand Canon – Pontiff Cardinal Khern S. Oliver, M.Th., D.Div., J.C.L.

pontiff-khern-oliver-square-web-ktsHis Holiness (H.H.) Pontiff Khern Oliver has over 18 years of ecclesiastical experience in classical Churches of various canonical denominations of Catholicism.

He began his ecclesiastical career in the Brotherhood of Saint Francis of Assisi (BSFA) of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican mission of the Franciscan Order from 1212 AD (recognized by the Bishop of Salisbury in communion with the Church of England in 1931 AD).  As a Vatican Franciscan he was ordained into minor orders (1997), and as a Deacon and Priest (1998) in Derby England.  He was initiated into the Sacred Order of Benedictine Brothers (2004), specializing in investigations of energy manifestations and exorcisms.  With additional seminary studies in the Essene Orthodox Church, he completed a Master of Theology (M.Th.) in Catholic Mysticism from the Wedgewood Seminary of the Order of Saint Thomas (2009), and was elevated to Doctor of Divinity (Honoris Causa, for earned merit) in Classical Old Catholicism by the Chivalric Order of Saint Daniel (2010).

Khern was consecrated as a Bishop by the Old Roman Catholic Church in Lutterworth, England (2010), and elevated to Archbishop by Corpus Christi Ecumenical Fellowship (2011). He completed a Licentiate of Canon Law (J.C.L.) in Canonical Old Catholicism under an externship of Ignita Veritas University (2014), and was elevated to Cardinal of the Ancient Catholic Church (2014).

Canonically incardinated exclusively into the Ancient Catholic Church, Khern is not subject to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any other external Church, although by Canon law many Clergy and Bishops of his former Churches remain under Khern’s Episcopal jurisdiction as their ordinator and consecrator.

Cardinal Khern was strategically vested with multiple lines of Apostolic Succession by the 12th century Independent Church Movement, the derivative 19th century Old Catholic Movement, and the resulting 20th century Liberal and Reformed Catholic Movement, as a figurehead to reunite all of these movements, which are recognized by the Vatican. This led to his founding the Independent Rite of Catholic Churches (2010), culminating in the full restoration of the 12th century Ancient Catholic Church (2015).

After primary service and ministry in the Vatican Franciscan Brotherhood (1997-2004), he practiced active Episcopal ministry in Corpus Christi Ecumenical Fellowship (2004-2014), and the Celtic Church of the Good Shepherd (2008-2014).  He now serves as the Supreme Pontiff (Pontifex Summus) of the 1st century denomination of Ancient Catholicism, as Pontifical Prelate of the Curia and College of Bishops of the Ancient Catholic Church.

Pontiff Khern continued the Brotherhood of Saint Francis from Reverend Father Superior Thomas Aquinas (from 2004), becoming the lineal canonical successor as the last remaining survivor of that Franciscan Order (since ca. 2010).  The juridical patrimony of the Brotherhood of Saint Francis thus became canonically vested in the Ancient Catholic Church through Pontiff Khern (2015).

As the Ancient Catholic Pontiff, Cardinal Khern Oliver constitutionally holds the position of Grand Canon for the Order as a sovereign subject of international law, thus serving as a Member of Parliament (M.P.) in the upper house of government. As Grand Canon, he is the Chief Advisor to the Grand Mastery on all canonical and ecclesiastical matters.

 

Legal Notices Regarding Government Officials

 

A (100) Knights Templar Illuminated Letters www.knightstemplarorder.org

Official Flag of the Order of the Temple of Solomon as an independent non-territorial Principality and sovereign subject of international law

Official Flag of the Order of the Temple of Solomon as an independent non-territorial Principality and sovereign subject of international law

All government officials, as Crown Officers of the Order of the Temple of Solomon, are protected under the Sovereign Protection & Rule of Law Act of 2010 and related acts and laws enacted by the Parliament.

The status, authorities, privileges and immunities of Diplomats of the Order under international law are established and governed by the Sovereign Defense and Crown Office Act of 2009 as enacted by the Parliament.

International law recognizes the “status of diplomatic agents” from all forms of nation states “since ancient times”, including historical sovereign entities of “differing constitutional and social systems” (UN Convention on Diplomatic Relations, Preamble; UN Convention of Consular Relations, Preamble; UN Immunities of States, Preamble: ¶5.) International law specifically requires that countries “shall not discriminate” against a historical form of nation state (UN Convention on Consular Relations, Article 47.1; UN Economic Rights of States, Preamble: ¶3, ¶7, Article 4).  Status as a sovereign “subject of international law” is binding upon all countries regardless of recognition (UN Law of Treaties, Articles 3, 38), with inherent diplomatic and consular relations (UN Consular, Articles 3, 1(d), 17.1) as a non-territorial state (UN Diplomatic, Articles 1(i), 3.1(a)).

KTS Official Badge Sample (500) Web SampleDiplomatic status is invoked with all privileges and immunities by presenting “Diplomatic Credentials” as issued (UN Diplomatic Relations, Article 13), exempt from accreditation or embassy registration (UN Diplomatic, Articles 1(i), 3.1(a)), without requirement of a consular post (UN Consular Relations, Articles 3, 1(d), 17.1), regardless of recognition (UN Law of Treaties, Articles 3, 38).  Crown Officers do not engage in commerce, retaining full immunities (UN Consular, Article 57).  Immunities fully apply by the fact of sovereignty alone (UN Diplomatic, Articles 22-36; UN Consular, Articles 40-57).  High Officials and Parliament hold absolute immunity regardless of scope of functions (ICJ Congo v. Belgium, Articles 51-55).

 

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Academic Source References for this Topic

Full Public Evidence Proving All Facts – All facts in these materials are abundantly proven publicly, directly from primary sources of the historical record and authoritative scholarship, presented as verifiable academic source references, in hundreds of numbered footnotes, consisting of conclusive evidence provided for the world to see.

Color Coded Quotes Indicating Sources – Quotes directly from verifiable sources are color coded, for convenience of visual reference, as follows:  Brown quotes indicate historical sources; Blue quotes indicate scholarly sources; Purple quotes indicate Canon law sources; Red quotes indicate Royal sources.

[1] Collier’s Encyclopedia, Thomson Gale (1985), 1985 Edition, Macmillan Library Reference (1990), “Knights Templars”.

[2] Charles G. Addison, The History of the Knights Templar (1842), pp.4-5, citing a Vatican document by the 13th century Pope Urban IV (Jacques Pantaleon, 1195-1264), the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, as “Pantaleon, Lib. iii. p. 82.”

[3] The Vatican, The Catholic Encyclopedia (1912), The Encyclopedia Press, New York (1913), Volume 14, “Templars, Knights”, Part 1, “Their Humble Beginning”, p.493.

[4] Ernoul & Bernard, Chronique d’Ernoul et de Bernard le Tresorier (ca. 1188), Ed. L. de Mas Latrie, Paris (1871), Chapter 2, pp.7-8.

[5] William of Tyre, Historia Rerum in Partibus Transmarinis Gestarum (ca. 1172 AD), XII, 7, Patrologia Latina, 201, 526-27, Translated by James Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary History, Marquette University Press, Milwaukee (1962), pp.70-73.

[6] Malcolm Barber & Keith Bate, The Templars: Selected Sources, Manchester University Press (2002), p.5.

[7] Ernoul & Bernard, Chronique d’Ernoul et de Bernard le Tresorier (ca. 1188), Ed. L. de Mas Latrie, Paris (1871), Chapter 2, pp.7-8.

[8] Kingdom of Jerusalem, Council of Nablus: Concordat of Canons (1120 AD), established by Patriarch Warmund and Kind Baldwin II of the Kingdom of Jerusalem; Preserved in the Sidon Manuscript, Vatican Library, MS Vat. Lat. 1345:  “Introduction to Canons”; Canon 20.

[9] Hans E. Mayer, The Concordat of Nablus, The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, Cambridge University Press, No. 33 (October 1982), pp.531-533, 541-542.

[10] Dominic Selwood, Quidem Autem Dubitaverunt:  The Saint, the Sinner, the Temple; Published in:  M. Balard (Editor), Autour de la Première Croisade, Publications de la Sorbonne, Paris (1996), pp.221-230.

[11] Dominic Selwood, Knights Templar III: Birth of the Order (2013), historian for Daily Telegraph of London, article.

[12] Malcolm Barber, The Trial of the Templars, Cambridge University Press (1978), p.5, p.8.

[13] Malcolm Barber & Keith Bate, The Templars: Selected Sources, Manchester University Press (2002), p.5.

[14] Henri de Curzon, La Règle du Temple, La Société de L’Histoire de France, Paris (1886), in Librairie Renouard.

[15] Pope Innocent II, Omne Datum Optimum (29 March 1139), translated in: Malcolm Barber & Keith Bate, The Templars: Selected Sources, Manchester University Press (2002), p.8, pp.59-64: “Master of the Religious Order of the Knighthood of the Temple… and his successors… in perpetuity… the protection and tutelage of the Holy See for all time to come.”; “not only in your Principal [princely] house but also in your dependencies and places subject to them… for ever the head and ruler of all those places belonging to it… [which] may not be infringed nor diminished by any ecclesiastical or secular person.”

[16] Pope Celestine II, Milites Templi, “Knights of the Temple” (5 January 1144), translated in: Malcolm Barber & Keith Bate, The Templars: Selected Sources, Manchester University Press (2002), pp.8, 64-65.

[17] Pope Eugenius III, Militia Dei, “Knighthood of God” (7 April 1145), translated in: Malcolm Barber & Keith Bate, The Templars: Selected Sources, Manchester University Press (2002), pp.8, 65-66.

[18] The Vatican, The Catholic Encyclopedia (1911), The Encyclopedia Press, New York (1913), Volume 8, “Jerusalem”, p.363.

[19] The Vatican, The Catholic Encyclopedia (1912), The Encyclopedia Press, New York (1913), Volume 14, “Templars, Knights”, Part 2, “Their Marvellous Growth”, pp.493-494.

[20] Hans J. Hoegen Dijkhof, Hendrik Johannes, The Legitimacy of Orders of St. John: A Historical and Legal Analysis and Case Study of a Para-religious Phenomenon, Hoegen Dijkhof Advocaten, Universiteit Leiden (2006).

[21] Ambassadeur Géraud Michel de Pierredon, Histoire Politique de l’Ordre Souverain de Saint-Jean de Jerusalem (Ordre de Malte), Paris (1926), Tome 5.

[22] Saint Michael Academy of Eschatology, Regular Orders of the Holy See, West Palm Beach, Florida (2008), updated (2015), Free Course No.555: “Chivalric Orders”, Lesson 3, Part 4, “The Order After the Loss of Jerusalem to the French”.

[23] United Nations, Convention on Diplomatic Relations, Vienna (1961), UN Treaty Series, Volume 500, at p.95 et seq., Preamble, Article 47.1.

[24] United Nations, Convention on Consular Relations, Vienna (1963), UN Treaty Series, Volume 596, at p.261 et seq., Preamble.

[25] United Nations, Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States, New York (2005), UN General Assembly Resolution 59/38 of 02 December 2004, Preamble: ¶5.

[26] United Nations, Convention on the Law of Treaties, Registry Vol. 1155, No.18232, Vienna (1969), Preamble, Article 38.

[27] United Nations, Convention on the Law of Treaties, Registry Vol. 1155, No.18232, Vienna (1969), Article 38.

[28] Rebecca Wallace, International Law: A Student Introduction, 2nd Edition, Sweet & Maxwell (1986).

[29] United Nations, Convention on the Law of Treaties, Registry Vol. 1155, No.18232, Vienna (1969), Article 3.

[30] Vatican, Tribunal e Cardinalizi o Constituito con Pontifico Chirografo (10 December 1951), Acta Apostolicae Sedis (24 January 1953), XLV (15): 765-767.

[31] Alan Butler and Stephen Dafoe, The Warriors and the Bankers, Lewis Masonic, Surrey, England (2006), pp.56-57.

[32] Frank Sanello, The Knights Templars: God’s Warriors, the Devil’s Bankers, Taylor Trade Publishing, Oxford (2003), p.278.

[33] Old Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Psalm 115:1.

[34] Hans J. Hoegen Dijkhof, Hendrik Johannes, The Legitimacy of Orders of St. John: A Historical and Legal Analysis and Case Study of a Para-religious Phenomenon, Hoegen Dijkhof Advocaten, Universiteit Leiden (2006), p.36.

[35] Hans J. Hoegen Dijkhof, Hendrik Johannes, The Legitimacy of Orders of St. John: A Historical and Legal Analysis and Case Study of a Para-religious Phenomenon, Hoegen Dijkhof Advocaten, Universiteit Leiden (2006), p.423.

[36] International Commission for Orders of Chivalry (ICOC), Report of the Commission Internationale Permanente d’Études des Ordres de Chevalerie, “Registre des Ordres de Chivalerie”, The Armorial, Edinburgh (1978), Gryfons Publishers, USA (1996), including: Principles Involved in Assessing the Validity of Orders of Chivalry (1963), Principle 1.