Muslim Saracen Chivalry as Templar Heritage Arabian Roots of European Chivalry & Templar-Muslim Friendship

The Sovereign Magistral Order of the Temple of Solomon recognizes that our Muslim friends in the tradition of Saladin historically embodied and promoted the same Codes of Honour as the Knights Templar. Despite popular misconceptions, it is a historical fact that the original Templar Order found common bonds of unity with the Muslim (Saracen) Knights of Saladin, rooted in shared ancient principles of Chivalry and spiritual Faith. Accordingly, members of the modern Order also know that both traditions continue to be connected, and remain united in mutual respect and interfaith cooperation.

 

Arabian Traditions as the Source of European Chivalry

 

'Farussiyya' Chivalry (1836) painting by Janvier Suchodolski in National Museum in Poznan Poland Poznan Poland

‘Farussiyya’ Chivalry (1836) painting by Janvier Suchodolski in National Museum in Poznan Poland Poznan Poland

H (100) Knights Templar Illuminated Letters www.knightstemplarorder.orgHistorians specializing in medieval Arabia have established that 11th-12th century European Chivalry was greatly influenced by ancient Arabian Chivalry (Al-Furúsiyyah Al-Arabiya) (الفروسا العربيه): “During the Arab era… and the years of the Crusades, Chivalry with all its attributes was transferred to Western Europe. An important Arab contribution to Western medieval society, its origin has been virtually ignored by Western historians.” In particular, “The ethical and romantic characteristic” of Chivalry (Furúsiyyah) (فروسه), “as practiced in the Arabian Peninsula, evolved and spread with the Muslim expansion.” [1]

Chivalry was the most prominent characteristic of the Muslim “Moors” who conquered the Iberian Peninsula (covering Spain, Portugal, Andorra and part of Southern France) beginning in 711 AD. In classical Arab culture, to become a genuine Knight (Fáris) (فارس), one had to master the virtues of dignity, eloquence, gentleness, horsemanship and artistic talents, as well as strength and skill with weaponry. These ancient chivalric virtues were transferred by the Moors, who comprised the majority population of the Iberian Peninsula by 1100 AD, and their brand of Chivalry quickly spread throughout Europe.

Indeed, the Hispano-Arabic romantic literary forms, such as the Muwashshah love songs, were adopted by the Provençal Troubadours from the Arab courts in Andalusia (Spain). It was those Troubadours who famously helped to spread the medieval culture of Chivalry across Europe. [2]

The Spanish chronicler Abanese wrote that “Europe had not known the arts and practices of knighthood before the arrival to Andalusia of Arabs with their Knights and heroes; a logical hypothesis in that Chivalry had not been known to the Greeks and Romans.” [3].

In Old Arabic, the alternative word for “Chivalry” (Furúsiyyah as horsemanship) (فروسه) was the word for “Virtue” and “Honour” (Múruwwa as chivalric values) (مروه), used as an interchangeable synonym. (In modern Arabic Múruwwa is only used as a womens’ forename, without awareness of the Old Arabic meaning, although Furúsiyyah is still widely recognized.) In classical Arabian Chivalry, the principle of chivalric Virtue was even more important than religious doctrines, according to the traditional Bedouin saying “There is no religion without Virtue” [4] (Lá Din B’ílla Muruwwáti) (لا دين بلا مروئتي).

“Knight-errantry, the riding forth on horseback in search of adventures, the rescue of captive maidens, the succor rendered everywhere to women in adversity – all these were essentially Arabian ideas, as was the very name of Chivalry, the connection of honourable conduct with the horse-rider, the man of noble blood, the cavalier.” [5]

Arab historians point out that “Renowned Arab Knights… were not officially knighted as in Europe. They became Knights by reputation of their courage, dignity, noble deeds and the pursuit of honor, through poetry, tales and legends. Incorporating generosity, forgiveness, and a just and honorable reputation as well as advocating justice and freedom, they became the treasure of their people… Pride of culture revolved around their adventures and feats.” [6]

The famous Crusader and Templar exclamation “God Wills It!” (Latin: Deus lo Vult) from 1095 AD [7] came directly from the Muslim expression ‘In-sha’Allah’ (meaning “God willing”, or “if it is the will of God”). As with the ancient principles of Chivalry itself, this phrase was brought to Europe through the Spanish Moors, who used the Hispanic version ‘Ojala’ which closely mirrors the sound of the Arabic ‘In-sha’Allah’ [ان شاء الله) [8).

 

The Sultan Saladin & the Knights Templar

 

Saladin 'Kingdom of Heaven' replica figure (2008) by Kowalski in Barcelona

Saladin ‘Kingdom of Heaven’ replica figure (2008) by Kowalski in Barcelona

T (100) Knights Templar Illuminated Letters www.knightstemplarorder.orgThe Muslim Knights of the opposing Saracen armies during the medieval crusades were primarily led by the Egyptian General “Saladin”, properly pronounced “Sala-ha-dín” (صلاح الد ين). His full name was Salah Al-Din Ibn Yusuf Al-Ayyubi (1137-1193 AD). The name Salah ad-Din means “Righteousness of Faith”.

Saladin rose to power as a General in 1169 AD, and became titled as the first Sultan of Egypt and Syria, thereby founding the Ayyubid dynasty (Al-Ayyūbīyūn) (الايوبيون) in 1174 AD. He later also became the Sultan of Mesopotamia, Yemen, and parts of North Africa.

As reported in a British documentary film broadcast on national television, Christian contemporary chroniclers and historians noted the “noble and chivalrous” behavior of Saladin. Despite being the nemesis of the Crusaders, he won deep respect from many of them, including King Richard the Lionheart of England, and throughout Europe and among Templars worldwide he became a celebrated example of the principles of Chivalry. [9]

According to European historians, during the Battle of Jaffa in 1192 AD, one of the most important battles of the Crusades, when King Richard lost his horse, Saladin graciously sent him two replacement horses as a personal gift, to enable his worthy opponent to continue leading the knights. Touched by Saladin’s pious honour, King Richard proposed that his own sister, Joan of England, Queen of Sicily, should marry Saladin’s brother, and offered that Jerusalem (which both the Templars and Saracens had fought for) could be their wedding gift. [10]

European university historians, translating and verifying from Arabic sources, confirmed that despite the differences in genuine religious beliefs, the Muslim Saladin earned great respect from Christian noble lords and the Knights Templar. King Richard once praised Saladin as a “Great Prince”, saying that he was without a doubt the greatest and most powerful leader in the Islamic world. Saladin reciprocated by declaring that there was not a more honourable Christian lord than Richard. [11]

Arabic historians, translated and confirmed by European university historians, documented many examples of the Chivalry of Saladin: In 1191 AD, when a Christian woman’s 3 month old baby had been stolen from her camp and sold on the market, the Templar Franks urged her to approach General Saladin in person to seek help. In response to the humanitarian request, Saladin used his own money to buy the child back, personally returned the baby to its mother, and ordered a horse to bring her and the baby back to her camp. [12] [13]

It was also reported that one time when King Richard was wounded in battle, Saladin offered the services of his personal physician, a noble show of great favour, since Muslim medicine was renowned as the best in the Western world at the time.

'Portrait Of Saladin' (ca. 1560) by Cristofano Dell Altissimo

‘Portrait Of Saladin’ (ca. 1560) by Cristofano Dell Altissimo

During the winter of 1191-1192 AD, Richard the Lionheart was suffering from a fever, while he and his Knights were recovering from the previous battle of Arsur, to gather strength for the next planned battle in Jerusalem. Richard knew that Saladin was a strict Muslim, and that Islam shared the fundamental Christian values requiring to help those in need. By now the mutually earned respect was so strong between the Knights Templar and the Saracens of Saladin, that King Richard was able to appeal to his otherwise nemesis Saladin, requesting fresh water and fresh fruit to cure his fever. Saladin sent a gift of pure frozen snow and fresh fruit to all of the Templars for their health.

Shortly thereafter, cancelling the planned final battle, Richard and Saladin signed a peace accord, the Treaty of Ramla of 1192 AD.

Many such stories of the Chivalry of Saladin and aspects of his friendship with the Templars under King Richard, based upon chronicles in the historical record, were made more widely known by the Florentine poet Dante Alighieri (1265-1321 AD) who included Saladin among “virtuous pagan souls”, by mention in another 14th century epic poem, and by a book of Sir Walter Scott (1825 AD). [14]

The Scottish lawyer and Judge Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832 AD), a Baronet (hereditary Knight) who was more famous as a historical novelist, featured the theme of chivalric goodness of and friendship with Saladin in his historical novel The Talisman in 1825 AD.

Regarding historical sources, Sir Walter Scott noted that “my contemporaries… many of them, [were] much enlightened” about Arabia and Arabic sources of history. “The love of travelling had pervaded all ranks, and carried the subjects of Britain into all quarters of the world.” He also confirmed his consultation with the historian “Mr. Mills, the Author of the History of Chivalry and the Crusades”, and that “I had access to all which antiquity believed… [and] the Saracens, according to a historian of their own country”. [15]

Sir Walter Scott’s The Talisman was the basis of the Egyptian epic film El Naser Salah Ad-Din (“Victorious Saladin”) in 1963, and also significantly contributed to the Hollywood film Kingdom of Heaven in 2005.

'Saladin and Guy de Lusignan' depicting the end of the Battle of Hattin in 1187 AD, by Said Tahsine of Syria (1954), detail

‘Saladin and Guy de Lusignan’ depicting the end of the Battle of Hattin in 1187 AD, by Said Tahsine of Syria (1954), detail

European historians confirm that the Knights Templar viewed Saladin as “a paragon of courage and magnanimity”, described as “pious, frugal, generous and merciful”, who reportedly since his youth remained “more interested in religion than combat”. Among additional factual examples in the historical record: “[Saladin] gave furs to some of his Christian captives to keep them warm” during a cold season in Damascus; Also, “when besieging the castle of Kerak in 1183 AD during the wedding festivities of Humphrey of Toron and the Princess Isabella, he ordered his [knights] not to fire on the tower where the wedding was being celebrated.” [16]

Saladin always declared as a policy that the lives of a King and his titled Nobility were assured safety, and that when taking such royal figures as captives, he made sure to give “instructions that they were not to be harmed”. In 1188 AD, “Saladin released King Guy from captivity” only because he accepted that the King “had given his word that he would leave [Saladin’s] Kingdom.” [17]

Much of the true history of the Chivalry of Saladin, and related friendly exchanges with the Knights Templar, were documented in the Arabic military treatise Discussion of the Strategems of War by Abu Al-Hasan Ali Ibn Abu Bakr Al-Harawi, an Iraqi Sufi scholar. This contemporary 12th century chronicle, written at the request of Saladin’s son Al-Malik, evidenced Saladin’s philosophy of noble humanitarianism as a key element of warfare:

The Al-Harawi treatise explained that “kindness towards non-combatants can be used as a demonstration of power”, and similarly, as paraphrased by European historians: “Generously allowing the garrisons of captured cities and castles to retreat… was another demonstration of such power, showing that the Sultan had nothing to fear from his defeated enemies.” [18]

The Al-Harawi treatise also expressed great respect for the Knights Templar Order, reminding Saladin to “beware of the [Templar] monks… for they have great fervor in religion, paying no attention to the things of this world.” [19]

The Muslim writer Baha, during the Third Crusade (1189-1192 AD), described King Richard as “a very powerful man of great courage… a king of wisdom, courage and energy… brave and clever.”

Statute of King Richard greeting the Sultan Saladin, in Old Jerusalem at the Citadel of David

Statute of King Richard greeting the Sultan Saladin, in Old Jerusalem at the Citadel of David

Historians generally conclude that the many reports of noble gestures of Saladin, and the “stories of his courtesy and benevolence that were brought back to Europe… had all the more impact because the Christian Europeans had hitherto tended to demonize their infidel enemies.” [20]

As leaders of the two opposing armies of the Crusades, Saladin and King Richard agreed and implemented the Treaty of Ramla of 1192 AD, by which Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control, but would be open to Christian pilgrimage [21] [22].

After concluding the treaty, Saladin and King Richard continued to send each other many gifts as signs of mutual respect, although they never met in person. As a monument to this great historic friendship, a statue of Saladin and King Richard greeting each other on horses was erected in Old Jerusalem, in front of the Citadel of David.

In 1754 AD, the lawyer and historian David Hume, librarian to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh, contributed to the core collection of the National Library of Scotland, including some verified facts about Saladin. As documented by David Hume: “This gallant Emperor [Saladin], in particular, displayed, during the course of the war, a spirit and generosity, which even his bigotted enemies were obliged to acknowledge and admire.” When Saladin died, his legal will had left all of his money (much accumulated wealth) as “charities to be distributed to the poor, without distinction of Jew, Christian or Mohomettan [Muslim].” [23]

 

Muslim Saracen Friendship with the Knights Templar

 

'Saladin Rex Aegypti' (Saladin King of Egypt), painting in 15th century manuscript, holding bread as a symbol of peace offering, balanced by the sword

‘Saladin Rex Aegypti’ (Saladin King of Egypt), painting in 15th century manuscript, holding bread as a symbol of peace offering, balanced by the sword

C (100) Knights Templar Illuminated Letters www.knightstemplarorder.orgContemporary 12th century chronicles documented the friendship between many Templar Knights and the Muslim Saracens of Saladin. This is noted by a 19th century historian describing the visit of Saladin with Templar Knight Humphrey of Toron in the camp of King Amalric during the Truce of Alexandria:

“Humphrey… was acquainted with the speech and the customs of the people represented by the visitor [Saladin], and had been on terms of friendship with some of them. The amenities of the occasion called for a show of courtesy on his part, and this was returned with such good will by his guest [Saladin] that what had been but politeness a moment before became, after a brief acquaintance, a sympathetic accord. After all, there was much in common between these enemies through circumstance.”

Historians consistently note that such encounters between the Knights Templar and Saracens of Saladin were characterized by “the glow of sympathy inspired by their new-found friendship”, notwithstanding that “To be sure, they would fight each other on the morrow”. [24]

The 21st century Sufi Master of the Hazrati Order, Pir Zia Inayat-Khan, observes: “In the annals of valor, courtesy and courtly love, Christians and Moslems figure as friends as often as foes. … For all his paradoxical fame as a hero of the Reconquista, it was in the service of a Moslem King [the Moorish Taifa of Zaragoza, Yusuf Al-Mu’taman Ibn Hud] that Don Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar earned the sobriquet El Cid [from Arabic As-Sayyid, nobility title of ‘Lord’].”

Pir Zia also notes revealing themes in the Arthurian Grail legends: “In the enchanted universe of medieval romance, knights-errant range freely between Christendon and Dar al-Islam. The paynim [Muslim] Palomydes… joins the company of the Round Table, and vies with Tristan for the affection of La Belle Isolde. Cousin paladins Rinaldo and Orlando fall under the spell of Angelica, a Moslem Princess of Cathay… The pious Tancred takes up the cross against the Saracens only to have his heart conquered by one of their warrior damsels.” [25]

Those Arthurian legends of Holy Grail quests, featuring many references to cross-over and friendship with the Saracens, were in fact created and promoted by the 12th century Knights Templar, purposely to help preserve the authentic doctrines of their tradition [26] [27]. This connection proves the genuine Templar belief in the fundamental compatibility, underlying common values, and resulting shared friendship between the Knights Templar and the Muslim Saracens.

All of these facts reveal and illustrate the truth and reality of the deeper underlying context of medieval Templar-Saracen relations: Both fought strategic battles only because it was their duty, dictated by the circumstances of their times, and not because of any cultural animosity, nor any inherent religious incompatibility. The historical record indicates that at all possible opportunities, in between battles strategically required by artificial political necessity, the Knights Templar and the Muslim Saracens of Saladin celebrated friendship in their common bonds.

 

Templars Were Not “Crusaders” & Not Against Muslims

 

D (100) Knights Templar Illuminated Letters www.knightstemplarorder.orgDirectly disproving the popularized superficial misconceptions, the original Knights Templar rejected the idea of the “Crusades”, as supposedly being to eliminate Muslims or eradicate Islam. The Temple Rule of 1129 AD, being the founding Charter of the Templar Order, explicitly condemned the Crusades, criticizing that it “did not do what it should, that is to defend… but strove to plunder, despoil and kill” (Rule 2). [28]

Some Western historians have noted: “Time and again [there was] failure on the part of his [Saladin’s] opponents to observe the vows which they had taken so solemnly, but were not always so scrupulous to uphold. But, though the sworn Knights of Christendom sometimes failed to stand by their given word… the records show unswerving adherence to his vows on the part of this Moslem [Saladin]. And these are the records of the enemy.” [29]

Original 'Eagle of Saladin' stone carving, from the Cairo Citadel constructed by Salahadin ca. 1180 AD

Original ‘Eagle of Saladin’ stone carving, from the Cairo Citadel constructed by Salahadin ca. 1180 AD

The 18th century lawyer and historian David Hume documented in the historical record that “The advantage indeed of science, moderation, humanity, was at that time [of the Crusades] entirely on the side of the Saracens”, combined with “a spirit of generosity” [30].

According to European 12th century chronicles: “Moreover it was not altogether without cause that the Sultan [Saladin] declared war; Reginald, Prince of Antioch, having broken the terms of truce [from 1180 AD], which had been agreed upon between our people and the [Saracens]”, attacked a large passing caravan of civilian Muslim travelers and taken them captive (in 1182 AD). “The Sultan… moved with indignation at the outrage, raised all the strength of his kingdom, and assailed with power and impetuosity the territories of Jerusalem. … Parthians, Bedouins, Arabs, Medes, Cordians, and Egyptians, though differing in country, religion, and name, were all aroused with one accord to the destruction of the Holy Land.” [31]

The glory and comparative unity of the Arab World under Saladin was forever thereafter seen as the perfect symbol of Arabian values of humanity against corrupt political forces. For this reason, a version of the “Eagle of Saladin” has been periodically used as the symbol of Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Palestine, Yemen, the United Arab Republic, and the United Arab Emirates in the modern era. Archaeology indicates that the Eagle of Saladin was never his official heraldic seal as a General or Sultan, but it was found on the West wall of the Citadel of Saladin in Cairo, such that it can be considered a valid charge element authentic to the tradition of the Arabian Chivalry of Saladin.

'Mort de Renaud de Chatillon' (15th century) illumination in 'Historia' by Guillaume de Tyr (William of Tyre), in Biblioteque Nationale de France (Mss. Fr. 68, Folio 399).

‘Mort de Renaud de Chatillon’ (15th century) illumination in ‘Historia’ by Guillaume de Tyr (William of Tyre), in Biblioteque Nationale de France (Mss. Fr. 68, Folio 399).

The Persian historian Imad Ad-Din Al-Isfahani documented his own eye-witness account of the death of Reginald, upon Saladin’s victory of the Battle of Hattin in 1187 AD: “Saladin… reminded [Reginald] of his misdeeds. ‘How many times have you sworn an oath and violated it? How many times have you signed agreements you have never respected?’ Raynald answered… ‘Kings have always acted thus. I did nothing more.’” In response to this flagrant rejection of all basic principles of honour, arising from the insidious evil of the belief that Princes are above the law and need not have any honour, Saladin “cut off his head and dragged the body” to King Guy, and “said to him in a reassuring tone: ‘This man was killed only because of his maleficence and perfidy” (meaning “evil ways and treachery”).

The chronicler Geoffrey de Vinsauf especially noted that upon Saladin’s massive victory in that battle, “it was not his own power but our crimes which had given him the victory; and it was proved to be so by the character of the event. In other engagements, our [Crusader] army, however moderate in size, with the Divine aid always conquered; but now, because we were not with God, nor God with us, our people were altogether defeated, even before the conflict”. [32]

Historians explain: “So here was one idealistic movement meeting and being opposed by another. Each feeling itself inspired by God, and each secure in the righteousness of its cause… That there were many lapses from just behavior on the part of the Crusaders must be admitted.” This occurred mostly when the Crusaders were misled or misdirected by corrupt secular officials. “But a mighty army of Saracens came up and besieged the Crusaders in turn, and the latter were put to it to withstand the hardships to which they were subjected.” [33]

 

Exposing Manufactured False Christian-Muslim Conflicts

 

S (100) Knights Templar Illuminated Letters www.knightstemplarorder.orgSuch unethical behavior by “Crusaders” (who were not Templars), as documented by contemporary chroniclers, was caused by bad leadership – and sometimes even by undermining interference – by corrupt officials from secular kingdoms, seeking political or economic gain or self-advancement.

It cannot be emphasized enough – for the deeper Truth to finally be told – that neither alleged “religious differences” nor “religion” itself were ever the actual cause of such military conflict. Rather, it was always the unlawful provocations by secular officials, who falsely abused merely superficial religious ideas, to manufacture false Chistian-Muslim conflicts, creating artificial situations which forced honourable Knights to have to fight battles which they otherwise would never have supported.

Emile Léon Gautier (ca. 1852 AD) photo portrait by J.P. Ziolo

Emile Léon Gautier (ca. 1852 AD) photo portrait by J.P. Ziolo

The authoritative 19th century historian Emile Leon Gautier (1832-1897 AD), an archivist of the Imperial Archives and Chief of the historical section of the National Archives of France, traced the original source of those corrupt manipulations. He exposed the root cause as being “Merovingian string-pulling” by the Merovingian dynasty, which he described as a political clan behaving as a self-styled “race” of ruling elites [34].

Gautier connected that clan to “the race of the Mayençais, to that race of traitors” from Bavaria (who also operated in France), who historically worked to undermine the Code of Chivalry, and “tried to oppose to it a Satanic Counter Code.” [35]

Gautier documented and exposed the covert provocations of the intended result, that propaganda about the “waves of Saracen invasion alarmed the people… and barbarism threatened to descend like a pall [plague] upon the astonished world. It was then… that the weak entertained the very natural idea of seeking the protection of the strong”.

It is thus proven by the historical record, that precisely in this manner, the first concept of supposed “Terrorism” was artificially manufactured to deceive the people into surrendering their basic civil rights and human rights. Gautier established that the intended purpose of this evil agenda was so that the oppression of “feudalism, so disastrous to the Church and to the Good”, could be imposed by the same political clans who deceptively caused the precipitating events to begin with. [36]

Manipulated domestic destabilization (mostly by provoked financial crises), combined with illegal foreign wars draining national resources and creating new enemies, were all used to promote the manufactured fear of “Terrorism”, only for selfish political control and economic gains. This is the very same method which is again being used – unchanged, and very thinly veiled – in the 21st century, by successors of the very same elitist political clans, to artificially create false Christian-Muslim conflicts.

The historical Order of the Temple of Solomon, of the original Knights Templar, saw through this insidious ruse and rejected it since the 12th century. The modern Templar Order has not forgotten the proven historical facts of anti-humanitarian abuses against all Faith by those political clans who are the true “enemies of God”, and will never accept nor support that evil agenda in the modern era as well.

Therefore, if there is to be any true “Crusade” in the modern world, it can only be one of Christians together with Muslims, resolutely united against the evil agenda of those political clans who are the enemies of humanity and the enemies of all Faith.

Fighting to defend the European Kingdom of Jerusalem was merely a way for the Knights Templar to obtain funding and support from various European Kings and the Vatican, by meeting the strategic need which was in pressing demand during their time. Such fighting would have been done with or without the Templars. However, by becoming the best military force to meet that need, the Templar Order was able to finance their real priority missions, empowering them to advance their archaeology, preserve the ancient knowledge as the heritage of humanity, and influence all of European civilization with positive humanitarian and chivalric values.

Statue of Saladin at the Citadel in Damascus Syria

Statue of Saladin at the Citadel in Damascus Syria

This true purpose, and the fact that this original understanding was preserved and continued to be followed by European Christians, is evidenced by the actions of the British Commander General Edmund Allenby at the end of World War I:

When General Allenby succeeded in capturing Damascus from the Turkish army, after his victorious entry into the city, he raised his sword in salute to the famous statue of Saladin at the Citadel. In 1933, General Allenby rejected all claims that the Crusades (or his own conquest) were against Islam, and specifically confirmed the true historical intent and genuine tradition, stating: “The importance of Jerusalem lay in its strategic importance, there was no religious impulse in this campaign.” [37]

The dedicated recognition of Christian-Muslim unity in the Arabic world, and the reciprocal commitment of Muslims to mutually support Christians, is evidenced by profound developments during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011:

Although this was scarcely reported in (and quickly forgotten by) mainstream media, the revolution was initially stimulated by a foreign “false flag” bombing of a Christian Church in Alexandria, by foreign provocateurs seeking to incite violence and war between Christians and Muslims. The Egyptian people, traditionally being wise in the ways of peace, intuitively saw through the transparent evil attempt, and instead overwhelmingly reacted with grand public proclamations and declarations of “unity between Muslim and Christian brothers”. Crowds of Muslims immediately encircled and guarded Churches all over Egypt to protect them. In fact, this attempted sabotage, and the perception of common people that the former President Mubarak had tolerated foreign provocateurs, was the true underlying and original cause of the 2011 Revolution which overthrew the regime.

Documented live video news coverage of the revolution, by the international news network Al Jazeera, featured touching humanitarian moments of spontaneous prayer. Without organized leadership, starting from the first time that Muslim protesters kneeled for their official prayer times (in the midst of fighting off oppressive police), Coptic Christians instinctively formed a standing circle around the praying Muslims for their very real defense and protection. Subsequently, every time Christians would kneel to pray, their “Muslim brothers” stood in protective circles guarding the Christians.

This was a living modern example, demonstrating that the Code of Chivalry remains an archetypal part of fundamental humanity, which continues to be practiced by genuine spiritual Christians and Muslims of faith to the present day.

Indeed, genuine Christianity cannot logically reject or oppose Islam, a religion which fully recognizes Christianity, considers Christianity to be a “part of” the Muslim Faith, and considers Jesus the Nazarene to be one of the most honoured Prophets of Islam next to Mohammad (peace be upon him). Both religions also believe in “Angels”, the historical struggle of “good versus evil”, and apply closely related doctrines of the Bible and the Quran to oppose all forms of evil in modern times.

(Moreover, the Order of the Temple of Solomon itself is specifically named after the Biblical King Solomon, who is recognized by all Muslims as one of the beloved Prophets of Islam.)

These facts must necessarily and inevitably make Christians and Muslims natural allies in spiritual Faith, against the continuous assault against all Faith – and against all of humanity itself – by corrupted elements of modern society.

 

The Ancient Warrior’s Code of Chivalry

 

'Jerusalem' (2014), allegorical oil painting of Templars & Saracens on Temple Mount, by Jason Askey (South African artist)

‘Jerusalem’ (2014), allegorical oil painting of Templars & Saracens on Temple Mount, by Jason Askey (South African artist)

A (100) Knights Templar Illuminated Letters www.knightstemplarorder.orgAccording to many career soldiers and military scholars, there is a certain bond that is often created between enemies during and after battle, which is called “The Warrior’s Code” [38] [39]. Researchers explain the significance of the Warrior’s Code:

The Code exists “to protect the victor, as well as the vanquished”. “People think of the rules of war primarily as a way to protect innocent civilians from being victims of atrocities… In a much more profound sense, the rules are there to protect the people doing the actual fighting.” The Code is designed to “prevent soldiers from becoming monsters… all battlefield behaviors that erode a soldier’s humanity. … Most warrior cultures share one belief: There is something worse than death, and one of those things is to completely lose your humanity.”

American mainstream media reported that the phenomenon of “post-traumatic stress disorder” in US soldiers returning from Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq arises from having seen and done things that are unimaginable. A study has shown that veterans who “felt as if they had participated in dishonorable behavior during the war” or saw the enemy as “subhuman” experienced the greatest degrees of post-traumatic stress disorder.

Journalists have documented that soldiers typically “recognize the common humanity of the enemy” when they are face-to-face on the battle field. “That sudden recognition can spring from many sources in battle – hearing the moans of a wounded enemy; sharing a common language; or opening the wallet of an enemy and seeing pictures of his wife and children.” According to scholars, “respect for the enemy’s humanity typically starts at the top… A leader sets the tone, and the troops get the message.” [40]

After World War II, many British and German soldiers “never forgot how their enemy treated them and staged reunions after the war… These soldiers weren’t just engaging in nostalgia. They shared a sense of hardship. They had survived an ordeal that most people could not understand.”

Another researcher and author Steven Pressfield explains: “In many ways, a soldier feels more of a bond with the enemy they’re fighting than with the countrymen back home. The enemy they’re fighting is equally risking death.” [41]

According to researcher and author Daniel Rolph, the bond commonly formed between enemies “could even lead to acts of loyalty after the war”. American Civil War stories include dying enemies trusting soldiers who mortally wounded them to carry messages and heirlooms back to their families, and such requests were honored by a strict sense of duty. A New York Times article from 1886 AD documented that many Union soldiers receiving federal government pensions were actually transferring their money to Confederate soldiers, their former “enemies”. [42]

For Templar Knights, the Warrior’s Code, which is inherently part of the Code of Chivalry, is primarily about preserving one’s humanity. This is defined and determined by knowing the difference between “Good and Evil”. The principle of Chivalry is not only about gracious acts of kindness and charity – it is also about having Honour by accepting the humanity of one’s enemy, and respecting them for their own Faith.

The highest mark of a true Templar following the Code of Chivalry is the ability to be gracious and respectful to a “worthy opponent” who is “of Faith” (even a different faith), who genuinely believes in a “just cause”, and to accept, forgive, and even assist or cooperate with that opponent as soon as hostilities have ceased.

 

Suggested Topics Related to this Information

 

Click for information on the Code of Chivalry and Templar Code of the Order.

Click for detailed information on Muslims in Membership with the Templar Order.

Click for detailed information on Primary Membership as a Sergeant or Adjutante.

 

Academic Source References for this Topic

 

[1] Habeeb Salloum, Saladin Chivalry and the Crusades, Al-Hewar Center for Arab Culture and Dialogue, Washington DC (2005).

[2] Titus Burckhardt, Moorish Culture in Spain, McGraw-Hill (1972), Reprinted by Fons Vitae (1999); Habeeb Salloum, Saladin Chivalry and the Crusades, Al-Hewar Center for Arab Culture and Dialogue, Washington DC (2005).

[3] Habeeb Salloum, Saladin Chivalry and the Crusades, Al-Hewar Center for Arab Culture and Dialogue, Washington DC (2005).

[4] Reynold Alleyne Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs, C. Scribner’s Sons, New York (1907), Reprinted by Cosimo Classics (2010), p.178, 287.

[5] Lady Anne Blunt & Wilfrid S. Blunt, The Seven Golden Odes of Pagan Arabia, London (1903), Introduction, p.14; Quoted by Reynold Alleyne Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs, C. Scribner’s Sons, New York (1907), Reprinted by Cosimo Classics (2010), p.88.

[6] Habeeb Salloum, Muru’ah and the Code of Chivalry, Al-Hewar Center for Arab Culture and Dialogue, Washington DC (2005).

[7] J. Morwood, A Dictionary of Latin Words and Phrases, Oxford University Press (1998), p.46.

[8] Pir Zia Inayat-Khan, Saracen Chivalry: Counsels on Valor, Generosity and the Mystical Quest, Suluk Press, Omega Publications, New Lebanon New York (2012), Glossary: “Ojala”, p.179.

[9] Documentary Film: Saladin, Richard the Lionheart and the Legacy of the Crusades, Channel 4, England (2011).

[10] Morris Bishop, The Middle Ages, The American Heritage Library, American Heritage Inc., New York (1968), 2nd Edition, Houghton Mifflin, Boston (1985), American Heritage Library Series, Mariner Books (2001), p.102.

[11] Malcolm Cameron Lyons & D.E.P. Jackson, Saladin: The Politics of the Holy War, University of Cambridge Oriental Publications (Book 30), 1st Edition, Cambridge University Press (1982), based on Arabic medieval manuscript sources, p.357.

[12] Baha Al-Din Ibn Rafi Ibn Shaddad (Author), Donald S. Richards (Translator), The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, Crusade Texts in Translation Series (Book 7), Ashgate Publications (2002), based on Arabic medieval manuscript sources, pp.147-148.

[13] Malcolm Cameron Lyons & D.E.P. Jackson, Saladin: The Politics of the Holy War, University of Cambridge Oriental Publications (Book 30), 1st Edition, Cambridge University Press (1982), based on Arabic medieval manuscript sources, pp.325-326.

[14] Piers Paul Read, The Templars: The Dramatic History of the Knights Templar, the Most Powerful Military Order of the Crusades, 1st Edition, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London (1999), Phoenix Press, London (2001), Orion Publishing Group, London (2012), p.150.

[15] Sir Walter Scott, The Talisman, featured in: Tales of the Crusaders, Archibald Constable & Co., Edinburgh (1825), Volume 3; Sir Walter Scott, Introduction (1832), printed in: The Talisman: A Tale of the Crusaders, Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh (1868), pp.3-5.

[16] Piers Paul Read, The Templars: The Dramatic History of the Knights Templar, the Most Powerful Military Order of the Crusades, 1st Edition, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London (1999), Phoenix Press, London (2001), Orion Publishing Group, London (2012), p.150.

[17] Piers Paul Read, The Templars: The Dramatic History of the Knights Templar, the Most Powerful Military Order of the Crusades, 1st Edition, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London (1999), Phoenix Press, London (2001), Orion Publishing Group, London (2012), pp.160,163.

[18] Abu Al-Hasan Ali Ibn Abu Bakr Al-Harawi, Discussion of the Strategems of War (12th century manuscripts); Featured in: William J. Hamblin, Saladin and Muslim Military Theory, in Binyamin Ze’ev Kedar (Editor), The Horns of Hattin, Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Variorum Press, London (1992), p.236; Cited in: Piers Paul Read, The Templars: The Dramatic History of the Knights Templar, the Most Powerful Military Order of the Crusades, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, Great Britain (1941), Saint Martin’s Press, New York (1999), Phoenix Press, London (2001), p.162.

[19] Abu Al-Hasan Ali Ibn Abu Bakr Al-Harawi, Discussion of the Strategems of War (12th century manuscripts); Cited in: Piers Paul Read, The Templars: The Dramatic History of the Knights Templar, the Most Powerful Military Order of the Crusades, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, Great Britain (1941), Saint Martin’s Press, New York (1999), Phoenix Press, London (2001), p.162.

[20] Piers Paul Read, The Templars: The Dramatic History of the Knights Templar, the Most Powerful Military Order of the Crusades, 1st Edition, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London (1999), Phoenix Press, London (2001), Orion Publishing Group, London (2012), p.150.

[21] Facts on File Library of World History, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Infobase Publishing, Africa (2009), “Saladin”, p.386.

[22] J. Gordon Melton, Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History, ABC-CLIO Publishing (2014), “1192”, “September 2, 1192”, p.786.

[23] David Hume Esq., The History of England: From the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688, New Edition (8 Volumes), A. Miller (Publisher), The Strand, London (1763), contributed to core collection of National Library of Scotland by David Hume as librarian to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh, Volume 1, p.489, Volume 2, p.23.

[24] Charles J. Rosebault, Saladin: Prince of Chivalry, Robert M McBride & Co, New York (1930), Chapter 1, “The Knighting of Saladin”, pp.1-3.

[25] Pir Zia Inayat-Khan, Saracen Chivalry: Counsels on Valor, Generosity and the Mystical Quest, Suluk Press, Omega Publications, New Lebanon New York (2012), Introduction, p.xi.

[26] Alan Butler and Stephen Dafoe, The Warriors and the Bankers, Lewis Masonic, Surrey, England (2006), pp.56-57.

[27] Norma Lorre Goodrich, The Holy Grail, Harper Perennial (1993), p.272.

[28] Henri de Curzon, La Règle du Temple, La Société de L’Histoire de France, Paris (1886), in Librairie Renouard, Rules 2, 14, 57.

[29] Charles J. Rosebault, Saladin: Prince of Chivalry, Robert M McBride & Co, New York (1930), Chapter 1, pp.6,15.

[30] David Hume Esq., The History of England: From the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688, New Edition (8 Volumes), A. Miller (Publisher), The Strand, London (1763), contributed to core collection of National Library of Scotland by David Hume as librarian to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh, Volume 2, p.23.

[31] Geoffrey de Vinsauf, History of the Expedition of Richard Coeur de Lion to the Holy Land (12th century), Translation from Latin, published in: Richard of Devizes & Geoffrey de Vinsauf, Chronicles of the Crusades: Contemporary Narratives of the Crusade of Richard Coer de Lion, Henry G. Bohn, Covent Garden, London (1848), Part 2, Chapter 5, pp.73-74.

[32] Richard of Devizes & Geoffrey de Vinsauf, Chronicles of the Crusades: Contemporary Narratives of the Crusade of Richard Coer de Lion, Henry G. Bohn, Covent Garden, London (1848), Part 2, Chapter 5, p.76.

[33] Charles J. Rosebault, Saladin: Prince of Chivalry, Robert M McBride & Co, New York (1930), Chapter 2, p.12.

[34] Emile Leon Gautier, La Chevalerie (1883), translated in: Henry Frith, Chivalry, George Routledge & Sons, London (1891), Chapter III: Commandment IV

[35] Emile Leon Gautier, La Chevalerie (1883), translated in: Henry Frith, Chivalry, George Routledge & Sons, London (1891), Chapter IV, Commandment X.

[36] Emile Leon Gautier, La Chevalerie (1883), translated in: Henry Frith, Chivalry, George Routledge & Sons, London (1891), Chapter IV: Commandment VII.

[37] Jonathan Phillips, Holy Warriors: A Modern History of the Crusades, The Bodley Head, division of Random House, London (2009), pp.327-331.

[38] Adam Makos, Larry Alexander, A Higher Call: An Incredible True Story of Combat and Chivalry in the War-Torn Skies of World War II, 1st Edition, Berkley Hardcover (2012).

[39] Shannon E. French, The Code of the Warrior: Exploring Warrior Values Past and Present (1970), Reprinted by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers (2003).

[40] John Blake, Two Enemies Discover a ‘Higher Call’ in Battle, CNN Online Magazine (09 March 2013).

[41] Steven Pressfield, Killing Rommel, Wheeler Publishing (2008), Broadway Books (2009), historical novel by a military historian.

[42] Daniel N. Rolph, My Brother’s Keeper: Union and Confederate Soldiers’ Acts of Mercy During the Civil War, Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania (2002).